Composer of chamber music, son of the cellist Leopoldo, at 13 he debuted to the public taking part along with his father to all the main musical events of the Republic.
After a period of development in Rome, he traveled with his father playing various times at the Court of Vienna.
In 1746 he was permanently employed in the Palatine Musical Choir of Lucca, for which he composed the first day of the Tasche in 1765 and vocal and instrumental holy music.
After the father's death, Luigi left Lucca to seek his fortune abroad. In 1767-68 he was in Paris and from 1770 he became member of the court of the King of Spain's brother, the infant Don Louis of Bourbon, becoming friend with Francisco Goya.
After his protector's death, Boccherini continued to stay in Madrid, he obtained a pension from king Carlo III and composed music for Federico Guglielmo di Prussia.
Despite the fame he acquired throughout Europe, thanks to the numerous editions of his compositions, in the last years of his life he suffered for the lack of commissions.
Boccherini died in misery in 1805. In 1929 his body was exhumed and transferred to the church of San Francesco in Lucca.